CASE STUDY SUMMARY_SOBHI

I chose to do a case study on the 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi, Indonesia. Before I chose this topic, I knew that I wanted my case study to be about a volcano eruption, because I have always thought they were super cool. After doing some research on volcano eruptions from the past, I came across Mount Merapi, which fascinated me with its stratovolcano shape and the fact is the most active volcano in Indonesia. After doing some more research I learned a lot more about it and it got more and more intriguing.

The eruption of Mount Merapi in 2010 was a level 4. It was caused by the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate underneath the Eurasian plate. The volcano stands on a destructive plate margin at a subduction zone, the Indo-Australian plate is dense, so it sank under the Eurasian plate edge which has a lower density. In turn, the temperature-pressure rises, rocks begin to release water, magma rises then, boom an eruption occurs.

The eruption left an aggrieved memory for the history of volcano eruptions in Indonesia. As a result of this event, a total of 353 people were killed and 577 people were injured. Residents were not very aware of this type of hazard or the risk they faced. Many Similar events had occurred before in this same location, yet that did not prepare the residents at all. A man whose family was a victim of the disaster states “After the 2010 tragedy, Merapi residents came to acknowledge they had lived alongside the 2,914m volcano for so long that they had become dangerously inured to its threat.” Also, many did not have the proper means to aid them in escaping this event. An example of this is of a family who during this eruption gave up on trying to escape and decided to remain at home and die together because they only had one motorbike that could not transport their family of six in a single trip.

Mount Merapi's eruptions - Photos - The Big Picture - Boston.com

The whole event lasted for about one month and caused Volcanic bombs and heat clouds, spread over ten kilometers from Mount Merapi, Pyroclastic flows advanced three kilometers down the mountainsides which were greatly populated, ash traveled 30 km away and covered almost everything in its path like the village of Bronggang, all roads were completely jammed with people in their vehicles trying to escape the disaster, later heavy rain brought about lahars that traveled into towns and destroyed bridges.

Eventually, everything was restored and back to normal, and this time even better because this time they had better Roads and bridges for evacuation, dams built in valleys to block lahars, and A newly enhanced warning system. Also, the government and non-government groups in Indonesia started a variety of training sessions in communities to help people be more prepared and better at evacuating. After this recovery phase, the residents claimed that they became much more aware of the possible disasters around them and their risks. Suwarni, a woman who manages a gift shop on Mount Merapi said, “Now, even if there is a small sign of some activity from the volcano, people react quickly.”

Thousands Evacuate in The Philippines as Volcano Spews

On Saturday, March 26, a small volcano by the name of Taal located south of the Philippines spewed a 0.9-mile plume. Authorities raised an alert and evacuated more than a thousand residents. The alert for the volcano started at a level 2 and then was increased to a level 3 on the 5-level scale. The seismology and volcanology agency stated that the reason for increasing the alert level was “there is magmatic intrusion at the main crater that may further drive succeeding eruptions.” Also, the head of the volcanology agency stated that “Magma in the shallow part of the crater interacted with water, causing an eruption called phreatomagmatic activity,” Taal happens to be one of the world’s smallest active volcanoes, yet it’s still very deadly as it killed more than 1300 people back in its 1911 eruption.

https://www.cnn.com/2022/03/26/asia/philippines-taal-volcano-eruption-intl-hnk/index.html

An Update on South Africa’s Storm

An update on the South African Storm, the last mention stated that the deaths were up to 250, currently, they are up to 306 in the city of Durban, South Africa. This storm is in fact the deadliest storm South Africa has ever seen. As the heaviest rains in 60 years pummelled Durban’s municipality, hillsides have washed away, homes and buildings have collapsed, and more people and more and more people went missing. What was spoken in the last mention of this storm is definitely true, Global warming and storms such as this in South Africa really do pose an impending threat towards less developed countries and they must receive help in becoming more prepared for such events in the future.

https://www.rte.ie/news/world/2022/0413/1292163-floods-south-africa/

severe storm strikes Arkansas

On Wednesday, April 13, many tornado and severe thunderstorm warnings were issued in Arkansas. On Monday, the EF1 tornados were seen as the storm begins and this Wednesday, the storm is seen as a level 3 or 4 out of 5. The storm is this level because of a potent cold front moving through the area with all modes of severe weather possible as well. The storm has caused thousands of residents to lose power and led to the death of a 20-year-old female who was pinned under a tree, during the storm.

https://www.thv11.com/article/weather/arkansas-severe-storms-tuesday-night/91-b0024d07-e1d4-4fc4-936a-794eaa97a759

https://www.kait8.com/2022/04/13/one-person-dead-after-being-pinned-under-tree-during-wednesday-storms/

Storm Megi Update

An update on storm Megi in the Philippines. The Death toll reported on Monday, April 11, was 25 people and today we are informed that it has risen to 76 people Reports by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council state that more than 920,000 people have been affected by the storm, hundreds of thousands of people displaced, more than 35,000 were pre-emptively evacuated, and at least 29 people are missing and 8 are injured. Storm Megi caused a lot of damage to agriculture estimated to cost more than $8 million.

https://www.cnn.com/2022/04/14/asia/philippines-storm-megi-agaton-deaths-floods-evacuations-intl-hnk/index.html

Storm Megi Terrorises The Philippines

Storm Megi recently hits the Philippines taking the lives of many. On Monday, April 11, reports from the Philippines claim that at least 25 have died in landslides and floods caused by the tropical storm. The storm landed on Sunday and sustained winds of up to 40 miles per hour and gusts of up 49 mph. The state weather bureau states that the storm is anticipated to weaken to 28 miles per hour and move back out over the sea on Tuesday.

https://www.cnn.com/2022/04/11/asia/megi-tropical-storm-philippines-dead-intl-hnk/index.html

Taiwan Struck by Two Earthquakes

On Wednesday, March 23, two earthquakes struck southeastern Taiwan. The earthquakes shook buildings in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan, but there were no reports of damage. The two earthquakes happened in quick succession, with the strongest one having a magnitude of 6.6, the deepest one having a depth of 30.6km, and the other having a 19.3km depth. Both quakes were felt across the country with the epicenters in Hualien county just offshore and close to the city of Taitung. Both Hualien and Taitung are highlands with many mountains so not many people live there.

Many earthquakes have occurred in Taiwan in the past because it lies near the junction of two tectonic plates which makes it very prone to earthquakes.

 

https://www.indiatoday.in/earthquake-today/story/earthquake-hits-taiwan-tremors-felt-taipei-1928306-2022-03-23

2.4 magnitude hits southern Illinois

On April 13, at 8:40 p.m. an earthquake with a 2.4 magnitude was recorded to have hit southern Illinois on Tuesday night, April 12. The earthquake had a depth of 7.64 miles. The earthquake was minor, yet it was felt in Franklin County, Illinois, and in Evansville, Indiana. The reports for this earthquake came from 13 people on the USGS website. Luckily there were no reports of damage from the earthquake.

https://www.kfvs12.com/2022/04/13/small-earthquake-recorded-southern-illinois/

A massive earthquake strikes near Namie, Japan

on March 16, a massive earthquake hit about 36 miles below the sea near Namie, Japan, which resulted in a one-meter-high tsunami warning in the region. The earthquake was reported at around midnight Thursday and had a 7.3-magnitude. Two aftershocks in Japan resulted in seven people being injured, most from falling objects and one from tripping and spraining his leg, and two million homes experienced blackouts. The Earthquake caused quite the damage; however, the tsunami warning was only considered a low-risk advisory.

https://www.today.com/news/news/73-magnitude-earthquake-strikes-japan-coast-triggering-tsunami-warning-rcna20311

Tornados struck Taopi, Minnesota

A small town named Taopi in Minnesota about 120 miles south of the Twin Cities was hit by tornados in a severe storm. On Tuesday, surveyors from the National Weather Service confirmed that there were four tornadoes that touched ground in southern Minnesota and northern Iowa. Many homes, buildings, cars, and trees were damaged. The National Weather Service states that the tornado that hit Taopi was an EF-2 with winds that peaked at 132 miles per hour.

https://www.fox9.com/weather/4-tornadoes-confirmed-along-minnesota-iowa-border-during-tuesday-storms