I chose this case study mainly because I was in shock with how many tornadoes occurred during such a short amount of time, and wanted to know more about the disaster.

The  Oklahoma/Kansas disaster, also known as The Great Plains tornado, occurred on May 3, 1999. It was an outbreak that started in the late afternoon and early evening hours that was due to various supercell thunderstorms that had composed many large and destructive tornadoes. The total count of damaging tornadoes that took place in the southern central part of Kansas, Oklahoma, and a little bit of northern Texas, is a heart-wrenching seventy.Two of which were dangerous, long-lived F4 and F5 tornadoes ,on the Fujita Scale, that passed near Wichita, Kansas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  This destructive hazard was a 68 mile long path that crossed several Interstate highways and devastated several suburban areas.

The strongest tornado, F5, hit the city of Amber, Oklahoma, at around 7 p.m, and moved to other cities in Oklahoma, and had especially devastated the town of Moore.

The Plains region is common for tornadoes. Oklahoma and Kansas, climatologically, experiences high frequency of tornadoes, especially in the spring each year, mainly because of the clashing of air masses.  There could have been more mitigation or preparation that could have been planned, yet t the mitigation that was in place worked for the most part as there was not as much fatalities had it not been in place. Most of the population knew what do in the event of a tornado, since they were subjected to many.

A total of forty people in Oklahoma and about 675 people were injured.

For the first time, there was a survey about tornado events by a Building Performance Assessment Team (BPAT), created by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), due to the fact  that the intensity and extent of the damage was so high that it  warranted the creation of FEMA’s first ever tornado BPAT ( BAPT,1999).

The public facilities were worse off in mitigation and preparation compared to the residences. It was decided that for the restoration process, that the public facilities  of Oklahoma and Kansas be better prepared for any future disaster that will come their way.

Long story short, this was one of the worse outbreaks that the Great Plains had ever had  to deal with. It created havoc and heartache among many. That tornado produced roughly 100 times more damage than any other tornado on record in Oklahoma City.  It was the costliest and the deadliest.

Chile Earthquake

An earthquake of a magnitude 7.1 hit 22 miles off of the west coast of Chile, near Santiago, the capital of Chile at a shallow depth of 6.2 miles below the sea, and about 85 miles. Chile is also well adverse with deadly earthquakes. There had been two significant aftershocks of 5.0 and 5.4.

A magnitude 7.1 quake is considered major and is capable of causing widespread and heavy damage, but the effects of this one would have been tempered because it was offshore.

Fortunately, there seems to be no immediate damage yet, but there are still some ongoing assessments taking place. There had been talk of ,mobile networks being down, but that is to be expected.

Thankfully there have been no reports of any deaths or many injuries.

Chilean authorities had initially ordered a preventive evacuation of the coastal area near Valparaíso, in the off chance of a tsunami, but canceled it shortly afterwards.

The order of a preventive evacuation caused alarm to the people of Chile and stayed with them even after the cancelation of it.

There have also been reports on some landslides in a few places.


Columbian Landslide

More than 250 people are dead and hundreds are still  missing after heavy rainfall triggered lethal mudslides and flooding in Colombia’s Putumayo province.

The survivors include 330 people who have been injured, 19 of whom remain in hospital.

A month’s worth of rain fell down in only a single night and created deadly flash floods in Mocoa. Houses and homes were completely destroyed and cars were  lost and swam down the floods, away from their owners.

Three of the six rivers surrounding the small town burst their banks, leaving muddy water and tree limbs racing through the streets.

People are wondering why such a disaster occurred and why had Columbia’s Putumayo province not been better prepared. People are starting to question the government on this matter. Blaming them for having allowed them to build homes on areas that were at high risk.

In some parts of Columbia people are more aware of the risks for living in the area, but Marcela Quintero, a researcher with the International Center for Tropical Agriculture said: ‘Unfortunately, in Columbia said “We don’t have a good assessment of risk, or good land-use policies to prohibit people from settling in areas like these.”

These said risks were multiplied as trees were cut down for cattle ranching and other agricultural purposes, removing critical protection against flooding and landslides.

The flooding is one of the worst natural disasters in Colombia. President Juan Manuel Santos has said that he will rebuild Mocoa and make it better than it was before.

Devastation in Lismore

About 40, 000 people were ordered to evacuate New South Wales (NSW) by the State Emergency Service ( SES), because of floods that were started from the Tweed River as well as the Wilsons River  located in Lismore.

“It’s very dangerous conditions out there over the next 24 hours,” said Acting Deputy Commissioner Mark Morrow.

It was advised caution as overnight rain would push Wilsons River to 11 meters especially when there is a population of more than 25, 000 people.

River levels are predicted to be higher than 2001 and 2005 floods, which made Acting Deputy Commissioner Mark Morrow advise caution as  “It’s very dangerous conditions out there over the next 24 hours.”

Many of the main streets of Lismore are under water which prevent people from returning to their homes and also the fact there are landslides.

Lismore  has been described as “a disaster zone” as receding floodwaters reveal damages that are causing major devastation.

The SES has cleared people to return back home but to still heed warnings as some roads are still closed and that there have been some deaths to have been confirmed.

Several bodies have been found when the clean up from the flood had commenced.

Cyclone Debbie: Tragedy Strikes on the Coast of Australia

Cyclone Debbie, a level four cyclone, caused tragedy and destruction in Queensland, Australia. The residents of Queensland were told to get out as fast as they can, as it was said to be the biggest flood to hit Rockhampton in over sixty years. Debbie was not the most damaging cyclone that has ever hit the Australian coast, but it was one of the largest.

Those who had decided to stay, lost power and running water for three whole days. Debbie created disaster zones across an 870-mile stretch of eastern Australia to the south and there were gusts of wind that were at 163 mph.

Bowen, Proserpine and the Whitsundays were the parts of Queensland that were hit the hardest. Roads we’re flooded, the weather was absolutely terrible and  power and phone networks were damaged. There were no immediate deaths but there have been two victims that were found dead in flood water.

The storm also damaged a multitude of properties, making about 270 uninhabitable.

Declared a catastrophe, the total cost of Debbie has been estimated to be more than one billion, as well as the sugar cane industry to receive a huge financial blow.

By destroying buildings and homes,  inlander Kerry Cowan said: “Everyone is in such desperate need for fuel and water. They’re all getting so low on everything now.”