Oklahoma Wildfires Cause Evacuations

On Friday wildfires spread throughout central Oklahoma. One wildfire in particular near Norman, OK forced around 100 to flee from their homes for shelter. The Norman Fire Department and the National Guard worked together to douse the flames. The National Weather Service issued a red flag fire warning for half of the state on Friday due to the warm temperatures, low humidity, and high winds. Affected areas include a forest between 108th and 120th Avenue NE, and the east and westbound lanes of I40 near the Grand Casino Hotel and Resort. At this time there are no reported injuries or permanent structural damages.

 

National Guard helicopter flies over a wildfire near SE 149th and Choctaw Rd. on Friday, March 3, 2017 in Oklahoma City, Okla.  Photo by Steve Sisney, The Oklahoman

National Guard helicopter flies over a wildfire near SE 149th and Choctaw Rd. on Friday, March 3, 2017 in Oklahoma City, Okla. Photo by Steve Sisney, The Oklahoman

http://newsok.com/article/5540144

One thought on “Oklahoma Wildfires Cause Evacuations

  1. PEOPLE CAUSE MOST WILDFIRES: IMAGE OF THE DAY –

    I ran across this interesting article of a study released last month regarding causes of wildfires. Another example of how man can cause much destruction in our world. Wildfires serve a purpose in
    reclaiming land and such, but with the wild land/urban/suburban interface, there is also significant property damage and deaths/injuries. Climate change was also discussed in the article and its effects of a drier climate in forests. One other piece of information was that the human caused wildfires accounted for less than half of the actual area burned. It did not discuss the damage/injuries/fatalities between the two causes.

    Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=89757

    Humans—not lightning—trigger most wildfires in the United States. According to a study published in February 2017 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 84 percent of the blazes that firefighters were called to fight between 1992 and 2012 were ignited by people. Some common ways that people start fires include discarding cigarettes, leaving campfires unattended, and losing control of prescribed burns or crop fires. Sparks from railroads and power lines, as well as arson, also routinely cause wildfires.

    University of Colorado scientist Jennifer Balch and several colleagues came to their conclusion after analyzing reports of 1.6 million wildfires from a comprehensive’s fire occurrence database maintained by the U.S. Forest Service. As shown by the map above, almost all (80 percent or more) of the fires in the Mediterranean ecosystems of central and southern California, the temperate forests of the eastern United States, and the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest are caused by humans. In contrast, lightning started the largest percentage of fires in the forests of the Rocky Mountains and the Southwest. In Florida, which is moist but has a great deal of lightning, between 60 and 80 percent of wildfires were caused by people.

    The researchers also found that human-ignited fires tripled the length of the wildfire season. Though lightning-ignited fires were clustered in the summer, human-ignited fires occurred in the spring, fall, and winter as well, times when forests tend to be moist. During these seasons, people added more than 840,000 fires—a 35-fold increase over the number of lightning-started fires. In the eastern United States, fire activity became more extensive in the spring; in the West, human-ignited fires tended to extend the fire season in fall and winter. Despite the high number of incidents, human-ignited wildfires accounted for just 44 percent of the total area burned because many of them occurred in relatively wet areas and near population centers, where firefighters likely could quickly extinguish the fires before they spread.

    The researchers also compared the wildfire reports to other satellite-based measurements of fire activity and forest health. For instance, by comparing to a Landsat-based record of burn scars—known as the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project—they showed that both human-ignited and lightning-ignited wildfires have grown larger and more severe since 1992. For lightning fires, burning increased in mountainous parts of the West—not because there was more lightning, but because a warmer climate dried out forests. Among human-caused fires, there was an increase in large fires in the spring months in the Great Plains, possibly because climate change has prompted agricultural activities earlier in the year, Balch said.
    acquired November 12, 2016 download large image (6 MB, JPEG, 5000×5000)
    acquired November 12, 2016 download GeoTIFF file (42 MB, TIFF, 5000×5000)

    Note that the new study does not suggest that 84 percent of all fires in the United States are caused by humans—just wildfires. Other research has shown that by raw numbers alone, most of the active fires that MODIS and other satellite sensors detect in the United States are prescribed fires and crop fires lit intentionally by land managers and farmers.

    “Ignitions caused by human activities are a substantial driver of overall fire risk to ecosystems and economies,” Balch and the coauthors of the study pointed out. “Actions to raise awareness and increase management in regions prone to human-started wildfires should be a focus of the United States policy to reduce fire risk and associated hazards.”

    The image above, captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite, shows smoke streaming from several fires in Tennessee and North Carolina on November 12, 2016. People ignited most of the fires that raged in Tennessee and North Carolina in November 2016, including a destructive fire that tore through Gatlinburg, Tennessee, and killed 14 people.

    This research was funded by NASA’s Terrestrial Ecology Program, the Joint Fire Science Program, and the University of Colorado’s Grand Challenge Earth Lab.

    References
    Balch, J. et al, (2017, February 27) Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States. PNAS.
    Lin, H.. et al, (2014, April 24) Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States. Journal of Geophysical Research, Biogeosciences, 119 (4), 645-660.
    NASA Earth Observatory (2014, October 29) Fires in the Southern United States.

    NASA Earth Observatory map (top) by Joshua Stevens, using fire data courtesy of Balch, J. et al. (2017). NASA Earth Observatory image (bottom) by Jesse Allen, using data from the Level 1 and Atmospheres Active Distribution System (LAADS). Caption by Adam Voiland.

    Instrument(s):
    Terra – MODIS
    Aqua – MODIS
    In situ Measurement

    People Cause Most U.S. Wildfires
    March 7, 2017
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